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Hennigs v Eisenbahn-Bundesamt and Land Berlin v Mai

In these joined decisions, the ECJ has held that a term in a collective agreement which provides that the pay of a public sector employee is determined by reference to their age is unlawful.

Fuchs and anor v Land Hessen

This ECJ decision appears to suggest that costs alone will not be sufficient to justify discrimination.


Kücükdeveci v Swedex

A German law restricting the minimum periods of notice for those aged under 25 was found to be discriminatory and unjustified. 

Wolf v Stadt Frankfurt am Main

The ECJ has given their judgement on a German law restricting applications to the fire service to those under 30.

Hütter v Technische Universität Graz

The ECJ rule that an Austrian law which mandated lower pay for younger civil servants was not proportionate and therefore not justified under the Framework Directive.

Cadman v Health and Safety Executive

In general, employers do not need specifically to justify using length of service to calculate pay, according to the ECJ in Cadman v Health and Safety Executive.